When you're setting off a clause—this one is a good example—use

Links to other Evolutionary Ethics Websites




Evolution and Ethics: An Idea Whose Time Has Come? Part 2

Here is one of the better evolutionary ethics web sites. Dr. Corning presents an insightful and knowledgeable summary of important ideas concerning evolutionary ethics from the time of ancient Greece to the present. The arguments are very precise, abstracted and presented with few words, however his approach is unique and notable. This analysis was written in the course of reviewing the essays of other evolutionary ethics writers. (Part I) Peter A. Corning, Ph.D. Institute for the Study of Complex Systems. biographical info

The History of Cybernetics. The American Society for Cybernetics
This site is highly recommended

Early theories of ethics and cybernetics: Cybernetics & Human Knowing, from A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics

Morality seen as a biological adaptation.   http://www.ethics.ubc.ca/eame/eameweb/HARMS/OBJMORL2.pdf

The Biological Basis of Morality by Edward..O. Wilson

This link is an interesting philosophical synopsis
of biology and morality.

click here

 Professor Wilson hypotheses that scientifically breaking down the moral sentiments might lead to a more scientific knowledge of morality. To the contrary, in cybernetic ethics the linkage to science is not an analysis of the sentiments rather an analysis of a cybernetic process. The following quote from the Atlantic Monthly.

Little wonder, then, that ethics is the most publicly contested of all philosophical enterprises. Or that political science, which at its foundation is primarily the study of applied ethics, is so frequently problematic. Neither is informed by anything that would be recognizable as authentic theory in the natural sciences. Both ethics and political science lack a foundation of verifiable knowledge of human nature sufficient to produce cause-and-effect predictions and sound judgments based on them. Surely closer attention must be paid to the deep springs of ethical behavior. The greatest void in knowledge for such a venture is the biology of moral sentiments. In time this subject can be understood, I believe, by paying attention to the following topics:

* The definition of moral sentiments, first by precise descriptions from experimental psychology and then by analysis of the underlying neural and endocrine responses.

* The genetics of moral sentiments, most easily approached through measurements of the heritability of the psychological and physiological processes of ethical behavior, and eventually, with difficulty, through identification of the prescribing genes.

* The development of moral sentiments as products of the interactions of genes and the environment. Research is most effective when conducted at two levels: the histories of ethical systems as part of the emergence of different cultures, and the cognitive development of individuals living in a variety of cultures. Such investigations are already well along in anthropology and psychology. In the future they will be augmented by contributions from biology.

* The deep history of moral sentiments -- why they exist in the first place. Presumably they contributed to survival and reproductive success during the long periods of prehistoric time in which they genetically evolved.

From a convergence of these several approaches the true origin and meaning of ethical behavior may come into focus. If so, a more certain measure can then be taken of the strength and flexibility of the epigenetic rules composing the various moral sentiments. From that knowledge it should be possible to adapt ancient moral sentiments more wisely to the swiftly changing conditions of modern life into which, willy-nilly and largely in ignorance, we have plunged.

It would seem that Wilson's sociobiology would be the definitive work touching on biology and ethics had he incorporated cybernetics. His sociobiology is so close to being the great work that it is.

Click here for Wilson's article
Also, comments on Wilson's sociobiology and ethics

Biology as a Moral Guide by Eric J. Winter, including E.O. Wilson's observations. click here

   Link to Michael Ruse

(Quote from the link) "It is indeed true that you cannot deduce moral claims (about) origins). However, using factual claims about origins, you can give moral claims the only foundational claim they might possibly have." In cybernetic ethics, the science of cybernetics form a foundation from which you can deduce moral claims about origins. Certainly such an idea of moving from a factual "is" to a moral "ought"  or "ought not" goes against conventional philosophy. But, conventional ethical reasoning has not yet come to understand the power of cybernetics to explain complex systems. Review click here  Michael Ruse's recent book touching on evolution and morality  click here

Link to
Biology and the Foundation of
Cambridge University Press.  Cambridge.

Maienschein, Jane & Ruse, Michael (eds). 

There appears to be an impassable barrier between science and ethics.  Herbert Dingle (1946) has stated that this barrier exists because science is based on absolute certainty, while ethics has no general basis at all.  Science is also capable of advancement, where ethics is not because science can repair its mistakes through reason and experience. Ethics only collapses when its foundations are uprooted.  Because of this inefficiency regarding the understanding of ethics it is necessary that we observe and study moral behavior from a scientific perspective.  The understanding of ethics goes both ways though, in that morality needs to be looked at biologically and biologists need to explain their ethical views more philosophically. (link temporarily not working)

Arguments against Michael Ruse
Evolutionary Ethics: A Crack in the Foundation of Ethics?

Evolution and Ethics

The Evolution of Conscience, The Evolution of Moral Codes by C.D. Broad

A Short History of Evolutionary Ethics and its Critic by Paul Lawrence Faber

Evolution and Ethics by T. H. Huxley

Evolution and Ethics by Sir Arthur Keith

Evolutionary Philosophy links listed. A good resource page

Evolution and Ethics by Edward Stein

The Correlation Between Evolution and Ethics by Adam Barbhart

Intervening in Evolution: Ethics and Actions by Paul R. Ehrlich

Evolutionary Ethics and Biologically Supportable Morality by Michael Byron

Doris Schroeder: Evolutionary Ethics. "The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy"

Brief outline of the arguments from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Ethics and Evolution, MITECS abstracts

Evolutionary Theory and the Foundation of Moral Principles by Bart Voorzanger

Philosophy: Evolution and Ethics

Problems in deriving an ethical system  from science

Peter Singer Ethics in the Age of Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary ethics: history & critique ~ part I

Evolutionary ethics: Ruse & Sober ~ part II

Evolution and Ethics

The Great Debate: Philosophical Responses to Evolution

Evolution & Ethics, Huxley 1894

Monkey Morality, Gregory Koukl, derivation of the evolution of ethical systems

The Ethical Aspects of Evolution

Introduction to the Science of Ethics by Theodore De Laguna

Evolution and Ethics

Evolution and Ethics by Beth K. Lamont

Intervening in Evolution: Ethics and Actions
by Paul R. Ehrlich "The evolution of ethics appears to be a product of a complex brain that evolved for, among other things, dealing with other smart individuals living in the same social groups. The roots of ethics seem to trace to the evolution of empathy—the ability to imagine another’s viewpoint..."

Evolutionary ethics: history & critique part 1

Semantic and Structural Problems in Evolutionary Ethics by K.G.Ferguson

Evolutionary ethics web sites

The Evolution of Morality From the Internet publication The Colossus. "Wilson's basic argument is that moral values confer an evolutionary benefit on the humans that subscribe to them; thus, certain ethical values propagate in the cultural sphere if they allow their adherents to propagate in the biological sphere ...Moral values are thus always rooted in biological imperative—often in a non-zero-sum game that benefits all individuals in a group in exchange for restrictions on individual behavior."

Darwin on the Evolution of Morality, Soshichi Uchii, Kyoto University This and several of the following links found on Vivisimo.com a good academic search engine.

Additional Soshichi, and Abstracts

Sociobiology, Evolution, Genes and Morality by Raymond Bohlin Ph.D.

The Evolution of Morality Chapter 1: The Origin of Personal Morality  By Durant Drake

The Evolution of Morality Chapter II: The Origin of social Morality

The Evolution of Morality and Fairness

Morals, More than Nice, They're Evolution

Moral Psychology and Evolution

How Morals Evolve  by Gregory Koukl.  Monkey Morality: Can Evolution Explain Morality?

Morals and Markets: An Evolutionary Account of the Modern World By Danial Friedman

Can Evolution Explain Morality? John Kilcullen. "It seems pretty clear that an evolutionary explanation will not provide a foundation for morality."

Evolutionary Dynamics http://www.ecomall.com/activism/gopi.htm

http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/bio99/bio99030.htm The Evolution of Morals by David DeGusta by David DeGusta

http://www.equip.org/free/DC753.htm Gregory Koukl

Dr. Chris McDonald's Moral Theory Publications

Evolutionary Ethics Resource and Reference Material

The Philosophy of Biology: A selection of Readings by Tim Lewens

Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics

Links for Evolution and Philosophy

The History of Evolution

Links for Evolution and Philosophy

Evolutionary Ethics: Biology as a Moral Guide  By Eric J. Winter

The Light of Reason: Evolutionary Psychology and Ethics

Evolutionary Ethics and Contemporary Biology http://books.google.com/books?id=m17qAWUSOXwC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=evolutionary+ethics+and+biological+adaptation&source=web&ots=cT2aexf2W7&sig=QCu3eeu3EtZPUmRWwVNuab_tUGE

Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology. XII. Against Evolutionary Ethics http://www.springerlink.com/content/x6km42180r041096/

Parting with illusions in evolutionary ethics http://www.springerlink.com/content/q7t15j1706614282/

Evolutionary Plilosophy links http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/library.html

AAAS Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion

The Biology of Moral Systems http://www.amazon.com/gp/phrase/ref=cap_bod_20/102-3392082-5884953?ie=UTF8&src=090784507X&checkSum=3qpLpLq%2B64pwOLoFmcUhx0uQyeKVyhwX6uzcBlkP1pRevIuAlNd%2BaQ%3D%3D&phrase=The%20Biology%20of%20Moral%20Systems

Adaptation and Moral Realism byWiliam Harms http://www.ethics.ubc.ca/eame/eameweb/HARMS/OBJMORL2.pdf

The Naturalistic Fallacy

On the Naturalistic Fallacy: A Conceptual Basis for Evolutionary Ethics John Teehan, Christopher diCarlo

Richard Weikart book review on the Temptations of Evolutionary Ethics. An excellent review of the issues. http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/arn/odesign/od181/weikart181.htm

Bruce Thompson on the naturalistic fallacy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

An overview of evolutionary ethics including the naturalistic fallacy and the is/ought dichotomy

The Naturalistic Fallacy & Paul Lawrence Faber

Hume & Moore "Resources in Ethics and Moral Philosophy

The Naturalistic Fallacy: The Logic of its Refutation

Comments on the Naturalistic Fallacy by Mortimer J. Adler Ph.D.

Problems in deriving an ethical system  from science

Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectivism, and Moral Cognition by William D. Casebeer e

On the Naturalistic Fallacy: A Conceptual Basis for Evolutionary Ethics by John Teehan, Hofstra University The authors contend that rather than being a constraint on evolutionary approaches to ethics, the Naturalistic Fallacy, so understood, clears the way, conceptually, for just such an approach.

The Is-Ought Dichotomy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The is/ought dichotomy

The is-ought Debate by Peter Singer

Is/Ought by Robert Bass

The Nature of Language and Logic by Douglas Glen Whitman

The is ought Problem by Gerhard Schurz

Remembering the is-ought Distinction by Linda A Nicolosi

Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectivism, and Moral
Cognition by William D. Casebeer

Naturalism & Non-naturalism

Moral Non-naturalism


Premises of Naturalism

Ethical Non-Naturalism

Naturalism & Non-naturalism in Metaethics

Paradigm Shift

The Process of Paradigm Shift by Michael Ray

Evolutionary Ethics: A Crack in the Foundation by John Mizzoni



Open Question Argument

Fact-value distinction

Links to the definition and history of Cybernetics

The History of Cybernetics. The American Society for Cybernetics.
This site is highly recommended


A conventional definition of cybernetics

Second-order definition of cybernetics including the mathematics of cybernetic systems. http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Cybernetics-EPST.pdf

Definition from Principa Cybernetica

Second-order cybernetics definition. Modern "second-order cybernetics" places emphasis on how the process of constructing models of the systems is influenced by those very systems, hence an elegant definition - "applied epistemology".

Ethics of Cybernetics by Kevin Warwick.
A new definition. Cybernetics here is defined as "The study of the interaction between man, machine, and animals."  Insert the name Kevin Warwick in the search box that appears to access this file. While the subject is not strictly on ethics this definition seems appropriate in the context of cybernetic ethics.

Norbert Wiener the father of cybernetics

What is Cybernetics? American Society for Cybernetics


Behavioral Cybernetics

Cybernetics and the Social Behavior Sciences by Gregory Bateson

Cybernetics and behaviors, Judy Lombardi

Behavior and Ethics

Evolutionary Cybernetics

Cybernetic Ethics was a term first used by Gregory Bateson. The Early Idea of Cybernetics and Ethics.

Evolutionary Cybernetics, Principa Cybernetica Web

Evolutionary systems and cybernetics

Evolutionary Ethics: Principa Cybernetic Web

Cybernetics and System Dynamics, Calresco

Cybernetics & Ecology

Miscellaneous Cybernetics

Norbert Wiener's Foundation of Computer Ethics by Terrell Ward Bynum
"Cybernetics takes the view that the structure of the machine or of the organism is an index of the performance that may be expected from it."

Gregory Bateson, the origin of the term Cybernetic Ethics

Bacterial Cybernetics
"Bacterial Wisdom: The general conclusion we draw from such examples, the implications to evolutionary theory and even the implications to philosophy, are presented in the paper Bacterial Wisdom, Gödel's Theorem and Creative Genomic Webs."

Cybernetics and Human Knowing A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics

Soziale Systeme Heinz von Foerster 

Cybernetics — What?  http://www.pangaro.com/designsummit/

cultural cybernetics

Biological Adaptation

Adapatation http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ETHICS.html

Adaptation and Moral Realism byWiliam Harms http://www.ethics.ubc.ca/eame/eameweb/HARMS/OBJMORL2.pdf

Social Engineering

Critical Mass: How One Thing Leads to Another  by Philip Ball. An inspiring history of ideas searching for the mathematics of social order.

Formal and Informal Fallacies

Various fallacies

Questionable cause fallacies

Common argument fallacies

Ethics and Mathematics

Mathematics For Ethics

Mathematics and philosophy

Elegant nonsense in math similar to formalism in ethics

"applied epistemology".

A Review of Ethics and Ethical Terminology

Where do ethics come from? Paul R. Ehrlich

Ethics: survey and observations an intro to evolutionary biology by Chris Colby.

A fun, but not related theory: The Idle Theory of Evolution by Chris Davis

Evolutionary Biology

Introduction to Evolutionary Biology By Chris Colby

The Biology of Moral Systems

The Biology of Moral Systems the book

Ethics Web Sites

CalResco Ethics and Self-organizing systems


Issues in evolution

Christianity and Evolutionary Ethics: Sketch Toward a Reconciliation by Patricia A. Williams

Teaching Darwin Seriously: Addressing Evolution and Ethics by Douglas Allchin

The Origin of the Emotions by
Benedict de Spinoza

The Origin and Essence of Ethics: The Religious vs. the Universal, Sadek Jawad Sulaiman

Problems with Ethics in an Evolutionary / Materialistic World-View by Paul Gosselin. "Evolution provides the structured context of moral action: it has constituted human beings not only to be moved to act for the community good but also to approve, endorse, and encourage others to do so."

Relativism, hedonism,, perfectionism

Evolution, Behavior & Genetics

Evolution and Human Behavior Journal

Evolution and Behavior Search Engines

Behavior and the General Evolutionary Process by William M Baum Includes a discussion of informational feedback in genetic and biological systems.


Altruistic is not the same as good.

Biology Lurks Beneath: Bioliterary Explorations of the Individual versus Society By David P. Barash, Department of Psychology, University of Washington.

Altruism In the news

Visceral Morality (text link)

Objective Morality  by Robin Allot  "...one can see why emotions were at the origin of the development of morality..."

In Defense of a Dialectical Ethic Beyond Postmodern Morality by
Mark Mason 

Here Visceral Morality conflicts with Ethical Formalism
Moral Judgments by Peter B. Lloyd, University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education.

A Critique of the Pragmatic Assigning of Monetary Values to Ecological Goods and Services by By Kate Farall  This is a pdf. Look for the binocular icon in the upper right corner, click and enter the search term visceral morality. Here, evolutionary economics merges into evolutionary ethics.

Philosophy and Ethics Web Sites

Internet Ethics Library

Philosophy sites

Prof. Spalding's List of Morality, Ethics and Philosophy Research Resources


Assorted Index for Uchii's Online Articles Evolutionary Theories

Ethics and evolutionary psychology

Organizational Integrity, and how it relates to other practices of applied ethics

Cultural Relativism by Kerby Anderson

Game theory and Ethics

Evolutionary Ethics and the Problems of Altruism by Russell A Jacobs.

The Philosophy of Biology: A Selection of Readings by Tim Lewens

Is Morality Wired-in?

Two takes on ‘evolutionary ethics’ Towards a Biospheric Ethic
The Great Debate: Philosophical Responses to Evolution
Philosophical Questions: Setting up the debate

Semantic and Structural Problems in Evolutionary Ethics Ferguson K.G.

Moral science


Economic as Moral Science

The Moral Science Paradigm

American Indian Perspective

Book on Moral Science   Ronald D. Icenogle, Ph.D.

Moral science Club

Moral Science Club, University of Nevada

CIT Moral Science Club

University of Sheffield Moral Science Club

Science in Ethics




Moral Psychology

Bibliography of Cognative Science and Ethics

What is Moral Psychology   Stephan Horst

Personality and Moral Behavior

Herbert Spencer

Moral Psychology   A list of resources on moral psychology

Moral Psychology: Empirical Approaches

Moral Psychology I: Where Is Morality in the Brain?



Books on Evolution

Evolution and Philosophy

Amazon books http://www.amazon.com/gp/explorer/0521674182/2/ref=pd_lpo_ase/102-3392082-5884953?ie=UTF8

Evolutionary Ethics was contraversial in the 1940's as illustrated in the book From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany By Richard Weikart Review by Johannes L. Jacobse  Another review at http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=37981105462766

Evolutionary Origins of Morality
Edited by Leonard D. Katz  "The principal papers are summaries of large and complex bodies of work..."

Elements of evolutionary ethics and politics: an analysis adhering strictly to Euclid's scheme of deduction and induction by Nubar, Zareh. St Catherine Press London, 1953. 100pp, Hardback

Recent Cultural Evolution Publications

EVOLUTION, COOPERATION & ETHICS Good resource material as outlined by professor John Orbell in his coursework outline.



The Evolution of Ethics


The Evolution of Ethics: An Introduction to Cybernetic Ethics
Revised edition

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version 10.8


Within this context, rule systems such as legal codes, traditions, customs and systems of etiquette evolve to facilitate adaptation.

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